Hypertension

Last updated: 17 Jan 2024  |  251 Views  | 

Hypertension

high blood pressure (Hypertension)
     High blood pressure (Hypertension) is a common condition. Some people may have the condition for years without showing symptoms. However, even without showing symptoms But it causes damage to the blood vessels and heart.

High blood pressure
     High blood pressure (Hypertension) is a common condition. Some people may have the condition for years without showing symptoms. However, even without showing symptoms But it causes damage to the blood vessels and heart. which can detect these damages Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases the risk of other chronic health problems, such as heart attack and stroke. High blood pressure often develops over many years and can occur in any gender. age

Symptoms of high blood pressure
     Hypertension usually has no signs or symptoms, even if the blood pressure is above normal. Some people with high blood pressure may experience headaches, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds. However, symptoms These often do not show until the blood pressure condition is severe.

When should I see a doctor?
     Patients will have their blood pressure measured as part of a normal procedure at every doctor's appointment. Patients diagnosed with high blood pressure or certain risk factors for heart disease and Vascular specialists are often advised to measure their blood pressure regularly. Children aged 3 years and older will have their blood pressure measured at their annual check-up.

Causes of high blood pressure
High blood pressure can be divided into two types:
     Hypertension Primary Hypertension This type of high blood pressure mostly develops over many years.
Secondary Hypertension This type of high blood pressure is caused by an underlying health condition and appears suddenly.

The causes of high blood pressure may include the following health conditions and medications.
Problems with obstructive sleep apnea.
Kidney disease
Adrenal gland tumor
Thyroid disease
Blood vessel abnormalities
Certain medicines, such as birth control pills, cold medicine, diet pills, painkillers, and other medicines
Use of illegal drugs, for example, cocaine and amphetamines

Risk factors and causes of high blood pressure
Age: The older you get, the higher your risk of developing high blood pressure. The risk of high blood pressure usually increases in men after age 64 and over 65 in women.
African-Americans are more likely to develop high blood pressure as they age compared to whites, with serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or kidney failure.

Obesity. High blood pressure often occurs in people who are overweight. Because the more you weigh, the more your body needs blood to supply oxygen and nutrients.
Living a sedentary lifestyle, people who are inactive tend to have a higher heart rate, which means the heart has to work harder with each contraction.

Smoking. Not only does smoking temporarily increase blood pressure immediately, but the chemicals found in tobacco can damage the lining of blood vessel walls, which results in narrowing of the arteries and a higher risk of heart disease. Secondhand smoke increases your risk of heart disease even more.

Foods high in salt. Foods high in sodium can result in fluid retention, leading to high blood pressure.
Low Potassium Diets. Low potassium diets cause the body to retain too much sodium in the blood. This is because potassium works to balance the amount of sodium in the body.

Heavy alcohol use. Excessive alcohol use can damage the heart over time and with age. Women drinking more than one drink and men drinking more than two drinks per day may be another major cause of the disease. High blood pressure

Stress High stress levels can cause a temporary increase in blood pressure.
Some chronic diseases Conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea may increase high blood pressure.
Pregnancy: Sometimes pregnancy can be another cause of high blood pressure.

High blood pressure is most common in adults, but it can also occur in children. For children, the cause of high blood pressure can be problems related to the kidneys or heart. Other risk factors include poor diet, obesity, and less exercise

Complications
” Higher blood pressure levels and more acute symptoms of high blood pressure often cause more damage. Several complications result from uncontrolled high blood pressure, including the following.
Heart attack or stroke
Aortic aneurysHeart failure
The blood vessels in the kidneys narrow.
Thickened or narrow blood vessels in the eye
Metabolic disease or a condition related to energy metabolism.
Problems with memory or understanding.
Dementia
Diagnosis of high blood pressure

Your doctor will measure your blood pressure using a blood pressure monitor. Blood pressure can be divided into the following 4 levels:

Normal Pressure Pressure levels below 120/80 mm are considered normal.
Slightly elevated blood pressure between 120/80 - 129/80 mm.
Stage 1 high blood pressure: If blood pressure is between 130-139/80-89 mm Hg, it is considered stage 1 high blood pressure.

Stage 2 high blood pressure, if the blood pressure is more than 140/90 High blood pressure or higher is considered severe high blood pressure and is considered to be stage 2 high blood pressure.

Both the top and bottom numbers in a blood pressure reading are equally important. However, after reaching age 50, the top systolic reading becomes more important. A condition known as isolated high blood pressure. It occurs when the diastolic pressure is normal (this is less than 80 mm Hg) but the systolic pressure is high (this is when the number is 130 mm Hg or more). This condition is found. It is more common in people over 65 years old.

During each appointment, the doctor will take two to three blood pressure readings before the doctor begins the diagnostic process. Because blood pressure generally varies throughout the day, the doctor may have the patient record their blood pressure at home in order to Make sure the patient has high blood pressure.

If a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure, the doctor will take a family medical history before examining the patient through a physical examination. The doctor will often recommend that the patient undergo tests, including a urine test, blood test, and Cholesterol Test: Sometimes your doctor will order an ultrasound of your heart to check for signs of heart disease.

Measuring blood pressure at home
”  Patients should monitor their blood pressure levels at home as this will help determine whether treatment is working or not and whether their high blood pressure symptoms are getting worse.

If lifestyle changes include eating a healthy diet and exercising. Cannot help lower blood pressure The doctor will prescribe medicine to lower blood pressure further. The goal of treatment is to maintain blood pressure less than 130/80 mm. For healthy adult patients aged 65 years or older. Patients younger than 65 years but with a greater than 10 percent risk of developing cardiovascular disease within ten years. Including patients with chronic diseases such as kidney disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease.

A group of drugs used to treat high blood pressure.
Thiazide diuretic diuretics
Blood pressure lowering drugs ACE inhibitors
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists
Calcium antagonist
Additional medicines your doctor can prescribe to treat high blood pressure.
Alpha blocker group
Alpha-beta drug group
Beta blocker group
aldosterone  
Anti-renin drug group
Vasodilators
Drugs that act on the central nervous system
A condition that cannot control blood pressure levels to a low level.

People with controlled high blood pressure who require four medications to treat them have drug-resistant high blood pressure, so doctors will double check for other possible causes of high blood pressure. However, people with high blood pressure Drug resistance does not always mean high blood pressure. Doctors will continue to investigate the causes of high blood pressure and find more effective treatments.

Lifestyle changes and home treatment
Behavioral and lifestyle changes can help reverse and prevent high blood pressure. Here are some suggestions:

Eat nutritious food
Reduce salt intake in food.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Exercise regularly.
Limit the amount of alcohol consumed.
No smoking
Try to manage or reduce stress.
Monitor your blood pressure at home.
Maintain blood pressure levels during pregnancy

source

https://www.medparkhospital.com/disease-and-treatment/high-blood-pressure-hypertension

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